The Journeys of Young Pumas, and Welcome to Puma 56M

A young male puma was captured and returned safely to the wilds yesterday by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife and San Mateo Police. As scientists studying pumas, we often receive questions about pumas when this happens. Usually the first questions are “Why does this happen?” and “Is it happening more frequently?” The short answers are “It’s because of puma biology”, and “Probably not”. The reasons behind that require a more detailed explanation.  First…

Some basics about puma biology (we’ll add these facts together later on)

  • Young pumas stay with their mother until they are about 18 months old, in which time they grow from 5 pounds to 70 pounds (females) or 90 pounds (male). Overall, there tend to be equal numbers of male and female cubs born. We’ll say here that a typical female puma is considered an adult at 2 years old, and a male puma is considered an adult at 3 years old, because by those ages they seem to have adopted typical adult behaviors.
  • Pumas can mate any time of year. Because of this, the grown cubs can also leave their mother any time of year. However, in the Santa Cruz Mountains there is a seasonal spike in the birth of puma cubs and a corresponding seasonal spike in cubs that leave their mothers. That spike in dispersing young pumas happens in Spring.

    Puma territories. Large shapes are males. Small shapes are females.San Jose is the gray area at the top.

    Puma territories. Large shapes are males. Small shapes are females.San Jose is the gray area at the top.

  • Adult pumas are territorial. Our GPS collar data shows that male territories in the Santa Cruz Mountains average ~90 square miles, and female territories average ~40 square miles, and a male’s territory will overlap with 3-4 females. Said another way, there are ~3 adult female pumas for every 1 adult male puma.
  • Adult female pumas tolerate young females better than adult male pumas tolerate young males. Young females tend to travel a fairly short distance from where they grew up and form their own territory in a suitable place within just a few months.
  • Adult males – who may weigh 130 pounds and have years of experience – persecute comparatively scrawny young males that are novices and weigh just 95 pounds. It takes 1 or 2 years for a young male to gain the experience and pounds of muscle to maintain his own territory…    …if he can find one. Adult males tend to like remote places with fewer people, which means that the safer places may be closer to people.

Add it up

All of this adds up to create a lengthy journeying phase in the life of young male pumas. They leave their mothers and start to wander in search of a place without an adult male puma and then seek to keep a low profile while they grow in size and experience.

Adult pumas have their territories and don’t venture much outside of them, but these young pumas explore new places. Pumas are stealthy and so they prefer to travel near the cover of forests and brush. Streams and forests are easy places for them to move and look for deer.

Pumas are active mostly at night (which happens to be when people aren’t), and it sometimes happens that a puma follows one of these streams or forests right out of the hills and into a quiet neighborhood at night, only to have it turn into a noisy, busy place of human activity once the sun comes up. So, the puma tries to lay low and find its way back out the next night. Sometimes he can stay unseen for a couple of days. When seen, these pumas aren’t likely acting aggressively. They are more likely waiting for darkness or seeking a way back to the quieter forests. All the cases of young pumas wandering into local cities that we’ve observed involve young males.

It’s a tough road for these young male pumas, and many of them die. In open wilderness such as the Sierra Range or Big Sur, we may expect that adult males would eventually find and kill them. In the Santa Cruz Mountains, however, run-ins with people are frequent causes – the most common being killed by cars while crossing busy roads or being shot for being making an easy meal of small livestock. Still, a few of them get a paw-hold in the more remote forests, find a vacant territory, and survive to adulthood.


56M, recovering and almost ready to continue searching for a territory

Since our research started in 2008, we’ve tracked the dispersal paths of 5 young pumas, including:

Add to that list now 56M – the puma that was caught yesterday in San Mateo. We met with California Department of Fish and Wildlife wardens at the release site and put a GPS tracking collar on him so that we may continue to learn about this important group of young pumas, the young males.

Why are young male pumas so important?

From an animal’s point of view, it’s possible that the Santa Cruz Mountains are cut off from the nearby mountain ranges. Think about it – the mountains west of San Jose, Palo Alto, San Mateo are all surrounded by water: San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean, or Monterey Bay.  There is a narrow area between San Jose, Gilroy, and Watsonville that connects this wonderful mountain range to the rest of North America. But, it’s hard for pumas to move through this area because there are many human influences that pumas stay away from – Highway 101, residential communities, and vast areas dedicated to farming tasty berries in the Salinas Valley.

Since adult pumas have territories that they stay in, and young female pumas tend to move only a few miles from where they are born, it is up to the journeying young males to try and make it across to the neighboring mountain ranges. Can they do it? And, what happens if they can’t?

Part of the Santa Cruz Mountains.  San Jose is the gray area at the top.

Part of the Santa Cruz Mountains. San Jose is the gray area at the top. Can young pumas cross highways, farms, and cities to the nearby mountain ranges?

When animal populations become small in number and isolated from each other, over time relatives begin to breed with each other and strange genetic abnormalities surface that affect the animals. This can make it harder for those affected individuals to survive or they may have fewer cubs, and a spiraling decline can occur. Allowing animals to move between those isolated populations can prevent this, but that takes planning and prioritizing by people amidst our other activities like housing and road construction, farming, and other choices about how land is used.

An important piece of continuing to have pumas in the Santa Cruz Mountains long into the future is to ensure that they stay connected to their neighbors in nearby mountains and do not become isolated. Putting GPS tracking collars on young male pumas can show us if they are able to get through these areas and if they are, where those places are located. So far, none of the males that have tried have made it across. We will continue putting tracking collars on these young pumas to see if – and where – any make it through.

Maybe the San Mateo Puma – 56M – will make it through? Check in with the blog again later. We’ll post an update on his progress.

51M Leaping

We hear that pumas are good climbers and jumpers, but we don’t often get to see it.  This awesome series of photos shows 51M, a ~4 year old male we originally collared in November, turning around on a tree trunk, climbing down, and then leaping to the ground.  These photos were captured by volunteer houndsman, Troy Collinsworth.


image-3image-2image-1Pumas have muscular legs, specially adapted for jumping.  After this mighty bound, 51M landed on his feet, safely and unharmed!

CCRC Depredation Prevention Workshop

I would like to say a huge huge thank you to everyone who helped make the depredation prevention workshop possible yesterday!  In particular, I would like to thank my co-organizer, Lewis Reed, Grey Hayes and the CCRC Education and Outreach Committee, the Santa Lucia Conservancy, and all the speakers and panelists!  Everyone put a lot of time and effort into making yesterday happen and it showed.  I would also like to thank all the participants for coming out to the Conservancy and sharing their perspectives and experiences.  I know some folks came a long distance to be there, and I really appreciate everyone taking the time to make this such a productive workshop!

During the meeting, we heard talks from ranchers, CDFW, APHIS, and the Puma Project, had a lively panel discussion, and went out in the field to see some of the on-site tools the Santa Lucia Conservancy is using to protect their livestock and wild carnivore neighbors.  We had a great turn out, wonderful discussions, and shared some very insightful information and perspectives.  I look forward to continuing the discussion in future meetings!


We had nearly 100 participants at the spring Central Coast Rangeland Coalition workshop entitled, "Protecting Critters on Both Sides of the Fence: Practical Techniques for Protecting Livestock and Carnivores."

We had nearly 100 participants at the spring Central Coast Rangeland Coalition workshop entitled, “Protecting Critters on Both Sides of the Fence: Practical Techniques for Protecting Livestock and Carnivores.”

Capture Frenzy – Welcome 52F, 53F, 54M, and 55F!

The Santa Cruz Puma Project has been ramping up our captures in the last month in order to better study the puma population of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Here’s an introduction to 52F, 53F, 54M, and 55F!

52F is 5 years old and about 80 lbs. She has two kittens about 6 months old and lives at the very end of Empire Grade. Because 52F lives in mostly undeveloped land, she can teach us a lot about how pumas in our study area live naturally.

53F is 2 years old and just over 70 lbs. She lives primarily in Sierra Azul Open Space Preserve.


53F is young, so her teeth are still white and sharp.

53F is young, so her teeth are still white and sharp.


54M is 1.4 years old and about 90 lbs. He is likely a dispersing male, on his way to establishing his own territory. We captured him very close to Laurel Curve on Highway 17, the future site of a wildlife underpass being developed by the Land Trust of Santa Cruz County (read more here). 54M may provide us important information about this important corridor as he continues to explore and establish his territory.

55F is 3 years old and 90 lbs. Like 52F, she lives in a very undeveloped area between Big Basin and Castle Rock State Parks.


55F in a tree

55F in a tree


We look forward to learning more about Santa Cruz pumas as we follow the journey of these four pumas!

Taking better wildlife photos: Do motion-triggered DSLR cameras impact wildlife?

Increasingly, motion-triggered DSLR (or digital single-lens reflex) cameras equipped with a flash are being used to take better photos of animals in the wild. These photos can be very valuable for conservation because they show the public the private lives of important and endangered animals. However, some animals get spooked by the flash, which can change their behavior. If an animal is particularly sensitive to this disturbance, it can be ill-advised to try to photograph them using flash cameras.

We were curious about the response of pumas to motion-triggered DSLR cameras. Working with wildlife photographer Sebastian Kennerknecht (, we paired up his DSLR camera with one of our motion-triggered video trail cameras. We had great success! See an example of one of his photos below (more to come).

49M at 6 months. Photo by Sebastian Kennerknecht.

49M at 6 months. Photo by Sebastian Kennerknecht.

We collected the video camera to see how the pumas responded to the flash. It appeared that they were undisturbed by it, and continued to feed as if nothing had happened (see the video below – the flash goes off 11 seconds in). At least for pumas, this is a good sign that motion-triggered flash photography might not be disruptive enough to change their behavior. However, more work is needed to truly understand the ethics of using these sorts of cameras for a diversity of animals.